The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online
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“If I could give each of you a graduation present, it would be this—the most inspiring book I''ve ever read." —Bill Gates

A provocative history of violence—from the New York Times bestselling author of The Stuff of Thought, The Blank Slate, and Enlightenment Now.

Believe it or not, today we may be living in the most peaceful moment in our species'' existence. In his gripping and controversial new work, New York Times bestselling author Steven Pinker shows that despite the ceaseless news about war, crime, and terrorism, violence has actually been in decline over long stretches of history. Exploding myths about humankind''s inherent violence and the curse of modernity, this ambitious book continues Pinker''s exploration of the essence of human nature, mixing psychology and history to provide a remarkable picture of an increasingly enlightened world.

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“If I could give each of you a graduation present, it would be this—the most inspiring book I''ve ever read."
Bill Gates (May, 2017)

A Mark Zuckerberg "Year of Books" Pick

"My favorite book of the last decade is [Steven] Pinker''s Better Angels of Our Nature. It is a long but profound look at the reduction in violence and discrimination over time."—Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft

"For anyone interested in human nature, the material is engrossing, and when the going gets heavy, Pinker knows how to lighten it with ironic comments and a touch of humor. . . . A supremely important book. To have command of so much research, spread across so many different fields, is a masterly achievement."—The New York Times Book Review

"An extraordinary range of research . . . a masterly effort."— The Wall Street Journal

" Better Angels is a monumental achievement. His book should make it much harder for pessimists to cling to their gloomy vision of the future. Whether war is an ancient adaptation or a pernicious cultural infection, we are learning how to overcome it."— Slate


Praise for THE STUFF OF THOUGHT

“The majesty of Pinker’s theories is only one side of the story.  The other side is the modesty of how he built them.  It all makes sense, when you look at it the right way.” The New York Times Book Review

“Packed with information, clear, witty, attractively written."— The New York Review of Books

“Engaging and witty …Everyone with an interest in language and how it gets to be how it is—that is, everyone interested in how we get to be human and do our human business—should read THE STUFF OF THOUGHT.”— Science


Praise for THE BLANK SLATE

“An extremely good book—clear, well argued, fair, learned, tough, witty, humane, stimulating.”— Colin McGinn, The Washington Post

“Sweeping, erudite, sharply argued, and fun to read…also highly persuasive.”—Time

About the Author

Steven Pinker is the Harvard College Professor of Psychology at Harvard University. A two-time Pulitzer Prize finalist and the winner of many awards for his research, teaching, and books, he has been named one of Time''s 100 Most Influential People in the World Today and Foreign Policy''s 100 Global Thinkers.

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4.5 out of 54.5 out of 5
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Top reviews from the United States

Trade Master Haze
1.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Neo-liberal Garbage!
Reviewed in the United States on January 31, 2020
The violence is in the laws of the nations. Neo-liberalism is the ideology at the root of all our problems and it is legal. Slavery in a different form. This is the reality: slavery is violence. It''s physical, verbal, and sexual abuse. It''s forced prostitution. Low pay and... See more
The violence is in the laws of the nations. Neo-liberalism is the ideology at the root of all our problems and it is legal. Slavery in a different form. This is the reality: slavery is violence. It''s physical, verbal, and sexual abuse. It''s forced prostitution. Low pay and other minimal benefits at work cause some people to be in a state of neo-slavery. They are nominally free individuals and are not the property of others, but their economic standing and power is so limited that they have to work for whatever they can get; and just put up with it. This state of neo-slavery is not accidental, it is the outcome of neo-liberalism, the economic orthodoxy that now dominates the globe. Deregulation of markets, the privatisation of publicly owned assets, the shift in the disproportionate share of income and wealth controlled by a ruling elite, together with burgeoning inequality are all advocated in the name of the free markets as a scientific reality. Neo-liberalism has such a powerful grip that it is rarely discussed by name. These are just the way things are. I argue that the supposed inevitability of the neo-liberal agenda is driven more by blind faith than scientific objectivity. As such it is a religion pretending to be a science. Indeed the rampant inequality resulting from the neo-liberal prayer book is counter-productive, because more egalitarian societies are more successful, and are happier places to live. Violence has not declined. Just the opposite. Neo-liberalism is violence evolved. I''ll leave with a quote.

“If I determine the enemy''s disposition of forces while I have no perceptible form, I can concentrate my forces while the enemy is fragmented. The pinnacle of military deployment approaches the formless: if it is formless, then even the deepest spy cannot discern it nor the wise make plans against it.”

- Sun Tzu - The Art of War
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Brandon
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Excellent read, with a few minor annoyances
Reviewed in the United States on July 9, 2017
This is truly a marvelous piece of work. I can''t imagine the amount of time and research that went into crafting this epic - and that is truly what it is. The author takes so many different perspectives - historical, psychological, biological, evolutionary, etc. to explain... See more
This is truly a marvelous piece of work. I can''t imagine the amount of time and research that went into crafting this epic - and that is truly what it is. The author takes so many different perspectives - historical, psychological, biological, evolutionary, etc. to explain the decline of violence over the course of human history, and it is truly amazing and engrossing to read.

However, I had to dock a star for a few reasons. First, I believe Pinker uses excessively obsolete and/or "advanced" vocabulary throughout the entirety of the book. The vast majority of people reading this book, I believe, will have a very difficult time reading the book without a dictionary nearby (or of course, an app on your smartphone, which I admittedly used). I have a college background in writing, and was proficient in writing throughout my schooling days, but Pinker''s vocabulary is advanced to the point of being frustrating and annoying; I found hundreds of words throughout the ~ 700 pages that I hadn''t a clue as to their meaning. Eventually, it became frustrating enough that I downloaded the Merriam-Webster dictionary app for the sole purpose of having it on hand while reading this book! Never had that problem with any other book.

Second, Pinker tends to run off on tangents on a consistent basis, and you will often forget you are even reading a book on violence. Many of these tangents are relatively interesting, but at times I thought perhaps he was just stroking his own ego rather than staying on topic. The book could have been much more concise and delivered the same message.

As a whole, however, the book is excellent and definitely worth a read, if you are up for a challenge. Or hey, maybe I''m not as great a reader as I thought I was! I found it a challenging but rewarding read and I came away from the experience with a great deal of knowledge and insight.
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Steve Kunkel
1.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Offensive to Christians
Reviewed in the United States on November 17, 2018
Couldn''t get through the first chapter. Many insults to Christians. Using the Bible as evidence that life more than 2000 years ago was more violent than would have been OK. But, the author gives well beyond that many times and didn''t need to for the point of this book.... See more
Couldn''t get through the first chapter. Many insults to Christians. Using the Bible as evidence that life more than 2000 years ago was more violent than would have been OK. But, the author gives well beyond that many times and didn''t need to for the point of this book. Very Offensive. I stopped reading. I have many other books to read. I''m reading one of those.
36 people found this helpful
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T. L. Cooper
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
For Better or Worse, The Story of Violence
Reviewed in the United States on August 4, 2016
I''ve struggled a bit to write this review because I have mixed feelings about The Better Angels of our Nature by Steven Pinker. I started reading The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined with the attitude that Pinker needed to first convince me... See more
I''ve struggled a bit to write this review because I have mixed feelings about The Better Angels of our Nature by Steven Pinker.

I started reading The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined with the attitude that Pinker needed to first convince me violence had declined before getting into explaining why. To be perfectly honest, given the world we currently live in, it''s hard to imagine that violence has declined.

While I finished the book convinced that violence has declined, I felt like the explanations for why seemed more hypothetical than proven. Pinker explored violence quite thoroughly beginning his book at the beginning of human existence and moving to modern times in the almost 700 pages of The Better Angels of Our Nature. He explored historical myths as well as historical documents to arrive at his conclusions. He used archaeological finds to disprove mythical battles. He described how the development of etiquette and the creation of government helped quell violence and change our norms about violence. He used a combination of statistics, anecdotal evidence, and archaeological studies to present his case.

Yet, the more I read, the more my college corrections statistics professor''s words haunted me. He always warned our class to be careful when writing papers not to allow our biases and our desires to prove our points to affect the weight we gave the studies we used as evidence.

Pinker seems less objective in some areas of The Better Angels of Our Nature than in other sections. He seemed to excuse violence against some people while unequivocally condemning it against others. This bias felt incredibly out of place in a book on why violence has declined.

For example, when talking about things like the FBI''s crime report and other such studies on crime, Pinker never mentions the effect of police discretion and biased court results on crime rates or how the statistics for individual areas are sometimes skewed by reporting or not reporting data. My assumption is he believes the numbers wouldn''t be enough to skew the overall results, and a simple paragraph could have addressed that issue. Maybe even just a few sentences; however, if those sentences existed I couldn''t find them.

His inconsistent handling of anecdotal evidence and research surveys deemed certain groups of people more credible than others without giving a clear reason why.

As I read The Better Angels of Our Nature, I found myself wanting it to be better than it was yet I still think it''s a book worth reading. Pinker obviously studied violence in great depth. He explains the statistics in an easy to understand, straightforward method, and he tells the story of violence quite well. He makes violence the main character, for better or worse, in a story that is ongoing and relevant and important. In fact, Pinker tells the story so well and brings up such important points, facts, and conclusions, that I am tempted to dismiss the things that bothered me about the book. Yet, I can''t do that in good conscience. Pinker drives home the fact that violence is much less acceptable than it used to be for a variety of reasons and that unacceptability has come about as humans have developed civilization and sought out ways to live together more peacefully. The Better Angels of Our Nature left me hopeful that we can continue to rise above violence and find nonviolent solutions in spite of my skepticism about certain sections of the book.
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Stone
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Well written book with some important takeaways
Reviewed in the United States on November 9, 2017
Being a recent college graduate, the moment I saw that Bill Gates had recommended this book, I bought it and began reading. This book has some important, intriguing, and profound themes such as how far we have come collectively as humans from even the middle ages to now.... See more
Being a recent college graduate, the moment I saw that Bill Gates had recommended this book, I bought it and began reading. This book has some important, intriguing, and profound themes such as how far we have come collectively as humans from even the middle ages to now. Though we are by no means close to being angels, (as evident by the chapter about our inner demons), progress is undeniable. I also am a fan of Pinker''s style of writing. He adds humor intermittently, has some interesting anecdotes, and does a good job at explaining most of his reasoning and data. I found the length of this book to be excessive though. This is a big book, make no mistake about it. At times, when Pinker is backing up his claims with copious amounts of data and graphs in the middle sections of the book, it can be a chore to read. However, I think I am the better for having read this book, and though I personally would not say that this book changed my life, I am glad to have read it.

I would also like to mention that if you buy the paperback version, towards the beginning, the text on the pages is uniformly at an angle, and not entirely horizontal across the page.
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Salander Lover
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
A thoroughly convincing megastudy!
Reviewed in the United States on October 5, 2017
While generally slow and plodding to read (despite innumerable attempts of varying success by the author to make it readable as a narrative with witticisms and anecdotes), this book comes across as an exhaustively researched, massively referenced academic endeavor. I... See more
While generally slow and plodding to read (despite innumerable attempts of varying success by the author to make it readable as a narrative with witticisms and anecdotes), this book comes across as an exhaustively researched, massively referenced academic endeavor. I decided it deserved five stars rather than four because I think any less exhaustive approach would have been less convincing, and from the professional reviews I''ve read, this is clearly a ground-breaking, masterly achievement in consolidating, synthesizing and logically interpreting the research in this area. I am a more optimistic and hopeful human for reading it!
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edsetiadi
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
You think that today is the most violent era in history? This book shows that it’s in fact the most peaceful one
Reviewed in the United States on August 20, 2020
This book is the ultimate history of human violence. The thick book brought us in a journey into the very dark places in history, with gruesome details on how different civilisations in different parts of the world in different periods of time conducted their violent acts... See more
This book is the ultimate history of human violence. The thick book brought us in a journey into the very dark places in history, with gruesome details on how different civilisations in different parts of the world in different periods of time conducted their violent acts as a daily occurrences, which can be overwhelming to read at times. The historically accurate Roman-style brutal crucifixion, for example, is even more sadistic than the depiction in the movie The Passion of the Christ.

Indeed, the book seemingly covers every single violence known in history, from war, murder, rape, bullying, violence against women children homosexual, all the way to violence towards animal.

But as the book progresses, it then points out the many pivotal moments that turned humans into a less barbaric creatures, such as the introduction of printing press that introduced empathy, and completes the thesis with its main point that today humans have evolved into a more civilised and peaceful beings, and that our time today is the most calm and peaceful era despite all the media portrayals. The gradual narrative is also complemented by all the available social theories known to man about the particular growth periods.

However, I stop reading it mindfully 3/4 of the way after I realise the arguments that Steven Pinker is presenting in this 800+ pages book are directed toward overly justifying the current status quo of State and capitalism (with weak cause-and-effect association from his own data) that ignored the dark and also violent side of it. Moreover, it also dawns on me a little too late that his arguments are biased towards New Atheism doctrines that would make Richard Dawkins blush (an argument that can be easily refuted, but that’s for another day).

All in all, great build up, impressive data, but disconnected conclusion. It certainly a big let down after such a promising start of the reading, hence the eventual 4 stars.
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Tactics117
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Contrary to popular belief, we live in comparatively civilized society.
Reviewed in the United States on November 16, 2017
Being bombarded with negativity in the news perpetually about murder, rape, terrorism etcetera, it was refreshing to hear scientific evidence showing that we actually live in a relatively peaceful time. The only negative aspect of the book is that Dr. Steven Pinker gives a... See more
Being bombarded with negativity in the news perpetually about murder, rape, terrorism etcetera, it was refreshing to hear scientific evidence showing that we actually live in a relatively peaceful time. The only negative aspect of the book is that Dr. Steven Pinker gives a free pass to Islam and barely even mentions the Middle East. He very much made his point that the West has become much more civilized. However, I know with certainty that he would have an extraordinarily difficult time making this point with regard to the so-called "religion of peace."
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Pat Downes
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
A book everyone SHOULD read. Uplifting proof that the human race is becoming more kind.
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on May 9, 2018
Just finished this scholarly work.I can read a novel in a couple of days but this took me over a month. Why? At times it is as much fun as reading a text book but it is well worth, taking note of what Pinker is saying, putting the book down, and thinking about the points he...See more
Just finished this scholarly work.I can read a novel in a couple of days but this took me over a month. Why? At times it is as much fun as reading a text book but it is well worth, taking note of what Pinker is saying, putting the book down, and thinking about the points he makes. This book PROVES we are becoming a more peaceful tolerant species( in spite of what The Daily Mail would have us believe).It is such good news.The first part of the book, using death counts as evidence, proves we are killing each other far less than we used to and in less horrible and violent ways and the second half carefully considers all the reasons why that might be. Factual, very carefully researched and extremely well written, even difficult scientific concepts are made very clear by the use of carefully chosen analogies.A truly important piece of work but also an extremely enjoyable read.
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M. Burns
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Stop watching the news for a while and read this book!
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on December 2, 2012
This book is not an easy read, it is a scholarly piece of work detailing the evidence for the decline in violence and more difficult task of proving its causes. Whilst in places it may be lots of statistics the overall result is a thought provoking and positive message that...See more
This book is not an easy read, it is a scholarly piece of work detailing the evidence for the decline in violence and more difficult task of proving its causes. Whilst in places it may be lots of statistics the overall result is a thought provoking and positive message that could do with being widely disseminated. If you are a regular consumer of news media you could be forgiven for thinking, "what decline in violence?" There seems always to be a war going on somewhere, our towns and cities are crime ridden, aren''t they? The answer is yes war has not been and seems unlikely to be eliminated any time soon and violent crime is a daily fact of life in many places in this world. When you take a cold hard look at the facts rather than the news headlines the conclusion is undeniable that the world is a less violent place today than its ever been. Starting with our hunter/gatherer ancestors where life was truly nasty, brutish and short, travelling forward in time through early civilisations to our modern era of nation states and global commerce there has been a huge decline in the odds of suffering injury and untimely death at the hands of a fellow human. This decline has not been steady or constant but has wavered up at times and down at others, and from place to place, but long term, the decline is very real. Pinker stacks up the evidence in a clear and digestible form, that can seem repetitive but makes the case for the long term decline of violence irrefutable by any reasonable mind. The big question this book attempts to answer is "what are the causes of this decline?" This is a question that it is vital for us to grasp if we are to ensure that the "long peace" may continue into the future and the world continue to get less violent. That we have come to think that war and other violence is not a smart way to behave is a triumph of reason and rational action that we may take for granted but just a few generations ago many still believed in the honour of war and the necessity of defending one''s honour by violently destroying your enemies. The conclusions that Pinker arrives at seem entirely plausible. The decline in violence seems inextricably linked with a rise in education, the sharing of information, the ability to read and be transported into the lives of others, and the sympathy this engenders. The resulting rise in enlightened reasoning overtaking received dogma as a better way to organise ourselves. Democracy for all its faults does seem a force for peace. Democracies that function passably well don''t go to war with each other. The positive changes in western culture in just my own life time have been quite remarkable. The universal declaration of human rights, the civil rights movement, the rise of women''s rights, gay rights, animal rights, the downfall of communism and other ideologies and despots that diminished the rights of the individual. Glance a little further back into the past and things our ancestors gave little thought to, slavery, wife beating, child beating, torture, witch burning, infanticide, now fill us with horror. It is unthinkable that we could now accept such things as a part of civilised life in the 21st century. It is no accident that the most peaceful and safe places to live in the modern world are those places with a well educated populace governed by a functioning democracy, policed by an impartial justice system, with open access to information. Conversely the least safe places in the world lack some or all of the above. The ideas that were yesteryears liberal radicalism, women''s rights for instance, have now become so mainstream that even the most conservative have embraced the inevitable and sometimes even claim it as their own idea. The feminisation of world is also a force for peace. Violence is by no means exclusively male but it is overwhelmingly so. Most violence is perpetrated by young men. A fact that is beginning to haunt those parts of the world that have used modern methods (and old fashioned infanticide) to preferentially select for male offspring. The resulting large groups of young adult males, without the prospect of marriage and its calming influence on male testosterone fuelled behaviour, is the cause of much criminally or ideologically driven violence. The countries where violence within the family and wider communities is rife also happen to be the countries where women''s rights and their influence is weakest. The lesson I think I have learned from reading The Better Angels Of Our Nature is that whilst the future is by no means assured to be less violent than the past, we now have a fairly clear idea of how to steer ourselves in that direction. This is to embrace science and reason, reject ideology and dogma. We need functioning democracies, we need shared commerce and resources, we need impartial justice, we need open information and free discussion. None of those things can happen unless all the people are sufficiently educated to be able not only to read, write and do arithmetic but to be capable of abstract reasoning. We have to be able to walk a mile in another man''s (or woman''s) shoes. Over a century ago Charles Darwin summed it up in The Descent Of Man. As man advances in civilization, and small tribes are united into larger communities, the simplest reason would tell each individual that he ought to extend his social instincts and sympathies to all the members of the same nation, though personally unknown to him. This point being once reached, there is only an artificial barrier to prevent his sympathies extending to men of all nations and races.
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StephenDS
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
An eye-opener of a book you should read
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on November 20, 2019
How do levels of violence, conflict and war in present times compare with the past? Modern communications, with 24 hour and super fast social media coverage give the impression of a modern world replete with savagery, and so it is in many ways. But this book uses modern...See more
How do levels of violence, conflict and war in present times compare with the past? Modern communications, with 24 hour and super fast social media coverage give the impression of a modern world replete with savagery, and so it is in many ways. But this book uses modern scientific studies of wars, conflicts and violence through the ages to show that the past is not only another country, it is one that would truly horrify us if we lived there. And that''s the point. Today, we find violence repellent, even our wars have become less horrific. Our better natures are firmly on the side of making the world a better place, and this book tells us, using well based, credible evidence, that we are moving in the right direction. It''s a long book because the author is conscientious about giving the evidence, but it is a book you should read.
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F. Gunn
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Optimist but....
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on December 19, 2018
I loved the first third of this book, engagingly written and humane, 2nd third a bit repetitive but still interesting, the final third - not so much, tedious reiteration of the argument and dodgy male/female brain stuff. Do read Cordelia Fine''s "Delusions of Gender" as a...See more
I loved the first third of this book, engagingly written and humane, 2nd third a bit repetitive but still interesting, the final third - not so much, tedious reiteration of the argument and dodgy male/female brain stuff. Do read Cordelia Fine''s "Delusions of Gender" as a welcome and necessary antidote. I would say the book is worth reading but could have done with some judicious editing.
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A. Listener
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Can''t recommend this enough...
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on October 7, 2013
Whilst reading many positive reviews on the book, I was expecting it to be a good read, but I don''t think I was expecting something quite as informative as this gem of a book has turned out to be. It''s become such a cliché these days, to say ''this is the best book I''ve...See more
Whilst reading many positive reviews on the book, I was expecting it to be a good read, but I don''t think I was expecting something quite as informative as this gem of a book has turned out to be. It''s become such a cliché these days, to say ''this is the best book I''ve read...''etcetera, But for me, it really does fall true for ''Better Angels Of Our Nature''. It is the most informative and interesting non-fiction book I can remember reading. I feel like I''ve learned so much just from one book. It covers not just the various acts of violence over human history, but the change in attitudes such as human rights movements, and the evolution of ''etiquette'' social behaviour, table manners and such, too. As well as the possible reasons ''why''. All this from our primitive past of hunter gatherer tribes, to modern day states and super-states. You might be expecting (considering the subject) an heavy, dry, academic tone from the author, but Pinker writes with such eloquence, he draws you in and arouses genuine interest. I didn''t find the book a particularly heavy book. I''d actually read just about half of the book in one sitting, and the second half, a day later. Given the fact that this book covers so much, I do feel I''ll need to read it a couple of times though to benefit from the full wealth of knowledge it offers. I bought this book, along with a couple of other of Pinker''s books, a few of weeks ago. But with the size and subject of this book, I put off reading it for a while. Thinking it was going to be heavily academic, and needed to be in the right mood for it to take my interest. I needn''t have though. I''ve thoroughly enjoyed it, and look forward to reading more of Pinker''s collection, including ''Blank Slate'', which I bought along with this one. If someone was to ask me to recommend them just one book - this would be that book. Can''t recommend it enough.
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The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined




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The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online

The Better discount Angels of 2021 Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined online