Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale
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One of the foremost researchers in human metabolism reveals surprising new science behind food and exercise.

We burn 2,000 calories a day. And if we exercise and cut carbs, we''ll lose more weight. Right? Wrong. In this paradigm-shifting book, Herman Pontzer reveals for the first time how human metabolism really works so that we can finally manage our weight and improve our health.

Pontzer''s groundbreaking studies with hunter-gatherer tribes show how exercise doesn''t increase our metabolism. Instead, we burn calories within a very narrow range: nearly 3,000 calories per day, no matter our activity level. This was a brilliant evolutionary strategy to survive in times of famine. Now it seems to doom us to obesity. The good news is we can lose weight, but we need to cut calories. Refuting such weight-loss hype as paleo, keto, anti-gluten, anti-grain, and even vegan, Pontzer discusses how all diets succeed or fail: For shedding pounds, a calorie is a calorie.

At the same time, we must exercise to keep our body systems and signals functioning optimally, even if it won''t make us thinner. Hunter-gatherers like the Hadza move about five hours a day and remain remarkably healthy into old age. But elite athletes can push the body too far, burning calories faster than their bodies can take them in. It may be that the most spectacular athletic feats are the result not just of great training, but of an astonishingly efficient digestive system.

Revealing, irreverent, and always entertaining, Pontzer has written a book that will change how you eat, move, and live.

Review

"A wide-ranging romp through evolutionary biology, physiology, and anthropology,  Burn will make you question what you think you know about metabolism and your waistline."
–Stephan Guyenet, PhD,  author of The Hungry Brain

"Burn
is science writing at its best: big ideas, wild and often hilarious stories from the field, and deft explanations. The result will reshape what you thought you knew about how our metabolisms work."
—Alex Hutchinson, New York Times bestselling author of Endure

"Herman Pontzer is one of the most gifted science writers of our time."
–Kelly McGonigal, PhD, author of The Joy of Movement

"Herman Pontzer’s Burn is a fun, fast-paced, eye-opening, and innovative book that will revolutionize how you think about the energy that fuels your body and everything you do. Please read Burn if you are interested in diet, exercise and what makes us human. It’s also enormously entertaining."  
–Daniel E. Lieberman, author of Exercised and The Story of the Human Body

"An absorbing, instructive lesson for anyone concerned about their health."
Kirkus starred review

About the Author

Herman Pontzer is an Associate Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology at Duke University and Associate Research Professor of Global Health at the Duke Global Health Institute. He is an internationally recognized researcher in human energetics and evolution. Over two decades of research in the field and laboratory, Dr. Pontzer has conducted pathbreaking studies across a range of settings, including fieldwork with Hadza hunter-gatherers in northern Tanzania, fieldwork on chimpanzee ecology in the rainforests of Uganda, and metabolic measurements of great apes in zoos and sanctuaries around the globe. Dr. Pontzer''s work has been covered in The New York Times, BBC, PBS, Washington Post, The Atlantic, NPR, Scientific American, and others.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

Chapter 1
The Invisible Hand

The lions woke me up around two in the morning. The sound wasn''t loud so much as big-like the moaning hydraulics of a garbage truck interrupted by the coughs and grunts of an idling Harley-Davidson. My first hazy, sleepy reaction was a kind of grateful joy. Ah, the sounds of wild Africa! I stared up through the gossamer mesh roof of my tent at the stars overhead, felt the night breeze pushing through the dry grass and thorny acacia trees and up against the tent''s thin nylon walls, carrying the lions'' chorus. I felt fortunate to be there, camped in my little tent in the middle of the vast East African savanna, a place so remote and untrammeled that there were lions just a few hundred yards off. How lucky was I?

Then a pang of adrenaline and fear. This wasn''t a zoo or some tourist safari. Those lions weren''t pretty pictures in a National Geographic magazine or a PBS nature show. This was real life. A gang of heavily muscled 300-pound feline killing machines was a short stroll away, and they sounded . . . anxious. Maybe even . . . hungry? Of course they could smell me. After days of camping I could smell myself. What was my plan when they came for my soft American carcass, the warm triple crme brie of human flesh? I wondered how close they''d get before I heard them in the tall grass, or if the end would come unannounced, an explosion of claws and hot angry teeth crashing through walls of the tent.

I kept thinking it through, trying to be rational. Judging by where the sound was coming from, the lions would have to walk past Dave''s and Brian''s tents first. I was Door Number 3 in this particular game of chance. That meant 1 in 3 odds of being eaten by lions tonight, or, if one was a glass-two-thirds-full kind of person, a 67 percent chance of not being eaten. That was a comforting thought. Plus we were with the Hadza, on the outskirts of their camp, and nobody messes with the Hadza. Sure, hyenas and leopards would occasionally slink past their grass huts at night looking for scraps or unattended babies, but the lions seemed to keep their distance.

The fear began to dissipate. Drowsiness seeped back in. I''d probably be fine. Besides, if one had to be eaten by lions, it seemed preferable to be asleep at the time, at least until the last possible moment. I fluffed up the pile of dirty clothes I was using for a pillow, adjusted my sleeping pad, and went back to sleep.

It was my first summer working with the Hadza, a generous, resourceful, and badass people who live in small camps scattered about the rugged, semiarid savanna around Lake Eyasi in northern Tanzania. Anthropologists and human biologists like me like to work with the Hadza because of how they make their living. The Hadza are hunter-gatherers: they have no agriculture, no domesticated animals, no machines or guns or electricity. Each day they wrest their food from the wild landscape around them, using nothing but their own hard work and guile. Women gather berries or dig wild tubers from the rocky soil with stout pointed sticks, often with a child on their back in a sling. Men hunt zebra, giraffe, antelope, and other animals, with powerful bows and arrows they fashion themselves from branches and sinew, or chop open trees with small axes to extract wild honey from beehives built in the hollows of limbs and trunks. Kids run and play around the grass huts of camp or head out in groups to get firewood and water. Elders either head out foraging with the other adults (they are remarkably spry even into their seventies) or stay back at camp to keep an eye on things.

This way of life was the norm worldwide for over two million years, from the evolutionary dawn of our genus, Homo, through the invention of farming just twelve thousand years ago. As farming spread and brought towns, urbanization, and eventually industrialization in its wake, most cultures traded in their bows and digging sticks for crops and brick houses. Some, like the Hadza, held on proudly to their traditions even as the world around them changed and began to encroach. Today, these few populations are the last living windows into humanity''s shared hunter-gatherer past.

Along with my good friends and fellow researchers Dave Raichlen and Brian Wood and our research assistant Fides, I was in Hadzaland (as we casually refer to their homeland) in northern Tanzania to learn how the Hadza lifestyle is reflected in their metabolism-the way their bodies burn energy. It''s a simple but incredibly important question. Everything our bodies do-growing, moving, healing, reproducing-requires energy, and so understanding how our energy is spent is the first, foundational step in understanding how our bodies work. We wanted to know how the human body functions in a hunting and gathering society like the Hadza, where people were still an integral part of a functioning ecosystem, with a lifestyle still similar in important ways to that of our deep past. No one had ever measured daily energy expenditure, the total number of calories burned per day, in a hunter-gatherer population. We were eager to be the first.

In the modernized world, far removed from the daily work of acquiring our food with our bare hands, we pay little attention to energy expenditure. If we think about it at all, we think of the latest diet, our workout plan, whether we''ve earned that donut we crave. Calories are a hobby, a nugget of data on our smartwatches. The Hadza know better. They understand intuitively that food and the energy it holds are the fundamental stuff of life. Each day they confront an ancient and unforgiving arithmetic: acquire more energy than you burn or go hungry.

We woke up with the sun still orange and weak on the eastern horizon, the colors of the trees and grass washed out in the diluted morning light. Brian started a cooking fire in our small, Hadza-style three-stone hearth and set a pot of water on to boil. Dave and I milled around bleary-eyed, needing caffeine. Soon enough we were all drinking hot mugs of Africafe instant coffee and spooning up plastic bowlfuls of instant oatmeal and jelly. We discussed research plans for the day. We had all heard the lions during the night and joked nervously about how close they sounded.

Then, sauntering through the tall dry grass, came four Hadza men. They weren''t coming from camp, but from the opposite direction, from the bush. They were each carrying large, misshapen loads over their shoulders, and it took me a moment to recognize what it was: legs, haunches, and other blood-matted parts of a big, freshly killed antelope. The men knew we liked to keep track of the foods they brought back to camp, and they wanted to give us a chance to record this kill before splitting it up among the families in camp.

Brian snaps to it, clears off the weigh scale, and locates the Foraging Returns notebook, striking up a conversation in Swahili, our common language with the Hadza.
"Thanks for bringing these by," says Brian, "but where the hell did you get a huge antelope at six in the morning?"
"It''s a kudu," say the Hadza guys, grinning, "and we took it."
"Took it?" asks Brian.
"You guys heard the lions last night, right?" say the Hadza guys. "Well, we figured they were up to something, so we went and checked it out. Turns out they had just killed this kudu . . . so we took it."

And that was it. Another day in Hadzaland-a banner day in fact, starting off with the rare prize of big game in all of its fatty and proteinaceous glory. In camp later that morning, gnawing on roasted strips of kudu, hearing the story of how Dad and his buddies chased off a pride of hungry lions in the dark to bring home food, the Hadza kids would understand an important and timeless lesson. Energy is everything, and it''s worth risking everything to get it.

Even if you have to steal breakfast from the lions'' jaws.


A Small Matter of Life and Death

Energy is the currency of life; without it, you''re dead. Your body is made up of roughly 37 trillion cells, each humming along like microscopic factories, every second of every day. Together, they burn enough energy every twenty-four hours to bring eight gallons (about thirty liters) of ice water to a raging boil. Our cells outshine the stars: each ounce of living human tissue burns ten thousand times more energy each day than an ounce of the Sun. A small portion of this activity is under our conscious control-namely the muscle activity we use to move. Some of it we''re dimly aware of, like our heartbeat and breathing. But most of this teeming activity goes on completely beneath the surface, in a vast and unseen ocean of cellular processes that keep us alive. We notice only when things go wrong, which, increasingly, they do. Obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and nearly all of the other diseases that plague us in the modernized world are, at their core, rooted in the ways our bodies take in and expend energy.

And yet, despite its importance for life and health, metabolism (the way our bodies burn energy) is badly and almost universally misunderstood. How much energy does an average adult burn each day? Every nutrition label in the supermarket will tell you that the standard American diet is 2,000 calories a day-and every label is wrong. Nine-year-olds burn 2,000 calories; for adults, it''s closer to 3,000, depending on how much you weigh and how much fat you carry (and for the record, the correct term when we''re talking about our daily energy needs is kilocalories, not calories). How many miles do you have to run to burn the energy stored in a single donut? At least three, but again, it depends on how much you weigh. For that matter, where does the fat go when we "burn it off" with exercise? Think it turns into heat? sweat? muscle? Wrong, wrong, wrong. You breathe most of it out as carbon dioxide, and turn a small fraction of it into water (but not necessarily sweat). If you didn''t know that already, you''re in good company; most doctors don''t, either.

No doubt much of our ignorance on the subject of energetics stems from gaps in our education system and the Teflon-like quality with which the human brain repels unused details. When three out of four Americans can''t name the three branches of U.S. federal government-an important bit of information drilled into us annually over twelve years of schooling-there may be little hope of people recalling the finer points of the Krebs cycle from high school biology. But our poor understanding is aided and abetted by a host of charlatans and Internet hucksters promoting wrongheaded ideas, usually for personal gain. With a reliably uninformed audience eager to stay healthy, you can sell almost anything no matter how preposterous. Boost your metabolism! they promise. Burn fat with these simple tricks! Avoid these foods to stay thin! scream the glossy magazines, usually without a shred of real evidence or scientific backing.

But the bigger, structural reason energetics is misunderstood is that we have gotten the science of energy expenditure fundamentally wrong. Since the beginning of modern metabolic research around the turn of the twentieth century, we''ve been taught to think of our bodies as simple engines: we take in "fuel" in the form of food, and burn it off by revving our engine with exercise. Any extra unburned fuel builds up as fat. People who run their engines hotter, burning more fuel each day, are less likely to get fat from accumulating unburnt fuel. If you''ve already accumulated some unwanted fat, just exercise more to burn it off.

It''s an appealing and simple model, a sort of armchair engineer''s view of metabolism. And it gets a couple things right: our bodies need food for fuel, and unburned fuel gets stored as fat. But it gets the rest badly wrong. Our bodies don''t work like simple fuel-burning machines because they aren''t products of engineering, they''re products of evolution.

As science is only beginning to fully appreciate, five hundred million years of evolution have made our metabolic engines incredibly dynamic and adaptable. Our bodies have gotten very crafty, able to respond to changes in exercise and diet in ways that make evolutionary sense even if they frustrate our attempts to stay trim and healthy. Consequently, more exercise doesn''t necessarily mean more energy burned per day, and burning more energy doesn''t protect against getting fat. And yet public health strategies stubbornly cling to the simplistic armchair engineer''s view of metabolism, hurting efforts to combat obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and the other diseases that are most likely to kill us. Without a better understanding of how our bodies burn energy, we grow understandably frustrated when we see our weight-loss plans failing, the bathroom scale refusing to budge despite our earnest efforts at the gym, the latest overhyped metabolic magic letting us down.

This book explores the new, emerging science of human metabolism. As a human biologist interested in our species'' evolutionary past as well as our prospects for the future, I''ve been working on the front lines of metabolic research in humans and other primates for over a decade. Exciting and surprising revelations over the past few years are changing the way we understand the links between energy expenditure, exercise, diet, and disease. In the following pages, we''ll examine these new discoveries and their implications for living long and healthy lives.

Much of this new science has come from work with the Hadza and populations like them: small-scale nonindustrial societies still integrated into their local ecology. These cultures have a lot to teach us in the developed world, but it''s not the caricatured version of hunter-gatherer life popularized in much of today''s Paleo movement. Here, too, my colleagues and I have learned a great deal in the past few years about how diet and daily physical activity keep these populations free of the "diseases of civilization" that bedevil us in modernized, urbanized, industrialized countries. We will visit these groups to see what daily life (and field research) is like in these communities, and what lessons we can bring home. We''ll also travel to zoos, rain forests, and archaeological excavations around the world to see how studies of living apes and fossil humans are contributing to our understanding of metabolic health.

But first, we need to get a sense of the immense reach and scale of metabolism in our lives. To truly appreciate the importance of energy expenditure, we have to look beyond the quotidian concerns of health and disease. Like the Earth''s tectonic plates, metabolism is the unseen foundation underlying everything, slowly shifting and shaping our lives. The familiar geography of human existence, from our first nine months in the womb to the eighty or so years we might have on this planet, is formed by the metabolic engines burning away inside us. Our big, clever brains and chubby babies are built and powered by metabolic machinery far different from that of our ape kin. As we''ve come to understand only recently, our evolved metabolism made us the bizarre and wonderful species we are today.

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4.3 out of 54.3 out of 5
348 global ratings

Top reviews from the United States

T. M. Allington
3.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Interesting read on metabolism, not helpful on weight loss
Reviewed in the United States on March 8, 2021
I found the first half of the book VERY interesting on the concepts of metabolism, sources of food as fuel, biochemical pathways, and anthropology. He actually explained the Kreb''s cycle in a fun and approachable way! However, I have a PhD in Pharmacology and having taken... See more
I found the first half of the book VERY interesting on the concepts of metabolism, sources of food as fuel, biochemical pathways, and anthropology. He actually explained the Kreb''s cycle in a fun and approachable way! However, I have a PhD in Pharmacology and having taken Biochemistry in college, I am probably more ready than a lay person to understand these concepts. A lay person without a science degree may struggle with the complexity of this book. Just stop there with Chapter 4 or 5. The concept of total calories burned being constrained overall is good to challenge, exercise is not a magic bullet to weight loss (see an easier read the 2009 Time article: The Myth About Exercise). Now the second half of the book this kind of falls apart. When he gets to diet advice, and tells you that the secret is just to eat less than you burn, and you don''t need to count calories, I thought - well here''s a guy who''s been skinny his whole life without even trying. Sure enough, photos of him over the decades reveals a skinny to normal size dude. Lots of his diet advice and observations on hunter-gatherer diets are the SAME as Michael Pollan''s - Eat [Unprocessed] Food, Not Too Much, Mostly Plants. First half of the book is interesting. Diet/weight loss advice not helpful.
178 people found this helpful
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Dr Ali Binazir
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
A fun, authoritative & witty guide to the latest science of metabolism, exercise & weight loss
Reviewed in the United States on March 4, 2021
Have you ever slept just a few hundred yards from a pride of hungry lions to gather data, with just a thin nylon tent between you and becoming breakfast? Herman Pontzer has. In "Burn", he lives to tell the tale of trying to keep up with bafflingly badass Hadza... See more
Have you ever slept just a few hundred yards from a pride of hungry lions to gather data, with just a thin nylon tent between you and becoming breakfast? Herman Pontzer has. In "Burn", he lives to tell the tale of trying to keep up with bafflingly badass Hadza hunter-gatherers and steel-livered Georgian paleoanthropololgists. The result is a masterwork of popular science writing: authoritative yet accessible, iconoclastic, and funny as hell.

The book is primarily about energy: the evolution of how humans acquire, use, and store it; the mechanisms for turning energy into work; how other animals do it differently; and how we sometimes thoughtlessly squander it. In the process, he upends some popular myths about diet and exercise.

For example, his research shows that the Hadza, who every day move around for ~4 hours and 15,000 steps, use the same amount of energy as couch-potato North Americans. What?!? How is this even possible? I''m still wrapping my head around this, but the definitive double-labeled water experiments don''t lie. Humans have "constrained energy expenditure", meaning that you only burn so many calories a day no matter what you do. Our extremely effective "metabolic compensation" simply shifts calories around so we break even at the end of the day no matter how much we move.

For practical purposes, this means that you basically can''t lose weight through exercise. Reducing caloric intake is the only way. Nevertheless, the manifold health benefits of exercise still make it the single most healthful activity we can do, as Prof Pontzer takes pains to emphasize.

I appreciate Pontzer''s vivid prose with evocative imagery and analogies that even a 10-year old can understand. I have no idea how he summarized all of college biochemistry in 2 pages while still making sense, but I''m sure glad he did. I particularly laud his deft use of technical terms like "hooey", "BS" and "poo", sometimes when dispatching bad science and fad diets like Paleo, low-carb keto, and raw foodism into the rubbish bin of nonsense. He''s the anthropologist who''s actually gathering the data in the African bush, freezing urine samples in liquid nitrogen and hauling them back. Don''t know about you, but I''m going to listen to working scientists with real data before armchair engineers, journalists, and self-styled diet gurus.

Finally, it''s been a while since I laughed out loud multiple times reading a science book. The gleefully irreverent humor lives in the hangover poetry, the punny section titles ("Mitochondria and the O2 joy", "It''s alimentary, my dear Watson"), and the Hadza language lessons.

Out there, there''s a lot of contradictory information on diet, exercise, and metabolism. For literate primates who use energy and want to disentangle truth from speculation without having to confront hungry lions, Prof Pontzer has done us a great service in compiling all we need to know in one enjoyably informative package. Read "Burn" to learn how your body really works.
-- Ali Binazir, M.D., M.Phil., Chief Happiness Engineer and author of The Tao of Dating: The Smart Woman''s Guide to Being Absolutely Irresistible , the highest-rated dating book on Amazon, and Should I Go to Medical School?: An Irreverent Guide to the Pros and Cons of a Career in Medicine
50 people found this helpful
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holi bebe
1.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Don’t waste your money
Reviewed in the United States on March 7, 2021
Total waste of time and money, it could show its conclusion in two pages. Unless you are an anthropology student, this is not an useful book. Don’t expect to get tips or a roadmap to losing weight
47 people found this helpful
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Darlene Showalter
3.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Could be so powerful but falls short.
Reviewed in the United States on March 8, 2021
I thoroughly enjoyed the portions of this book that dealt with the author’s own research. His anecdotes were entertaining and he explained the science in a way that kept me interested. I am disappointed by the rest of the book though and the author’s embrace of diet... See more
I thoroughly enjoyed the portions of this book that dealt with the author’s own research. His anecdotes were entertaining and he explained the science in a way that kept me interested. I am disappointed by the rest of the book though and the author’s embrace of diet industry culture. I think his research findings could be very useful in shoring up the resistance to an industry that fails on so many levels and causes so much pain and shame to so many. There is so much potential for this research to actually help end the dangerous and unhealthy diet cycle that trap so many. The author even cites the deeply troubling data from the Biggest Loser study and details the stories of people who have lost weight but have to exercise obsessively to keep their weight off because their bodies are still set for a larger person metabolism. Why not use the research to help people understand how to be healthier at the size they are. The author has a fat bias, he contributes to the misunderstanding that fat causes disease instead of using his great mind and research to help explain why fat is correlated to disease outcomes and how we can help people be healthier with the bodies they have. It is all there it just needs a different emphasis. It could be so powerful. As is it is like the first one star reviewer says, a disappointing diet book.
40 people found this helpful
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Jim F.
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
A rigorous, rewarding read.
Reviewed in the United States on March 4, 2021
Though written in a very approachable and often conversational manner, this is an (appropriately) sophisticated, scholarly discussion that incorporates biology, chemistry, anthropology, statistics and other scientific disciplines, all presented with suitable scientific... See more
Though written in a very approachable and often conversational manner, this is an (appropriately) sophisticated, scholarly discussion that incorporates biology, chemistry, anthropology, statistics and other scientific disciplines, all presented with suitable scientific rigor. The findings and implications with regard to health, diet, exercise, et.al. are extremely interesting, often counter-intuitive and will be readily understood by the lay person; but this is not a casual or breezy read, so don''t jump in to this unprepared to devote considerable concentration and focus to the material.
23 people found this helpful
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Elise A. Miller
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
personal trainer says, this book is the bomb.
Reviewed in the United States on March 22, 2021
as a personal trainer and nutrition coach, i am tasked with helping clients meet their physique goals. this book provides a realistic and sustainable blueprint for health and longevity, that at first glance when you hear the findings, really ought to put me out of business.... See more
as a personal trainer and nutrition coach, i am tasked with helping clients meet their physique goals. this book provides a realistic and sustainable blueprint for health and longevity, that at first glance when you hear the findings, really ought to put me out of business. because see, exercise affects weight loss....not very much at all. meaning that you can''t exercise to lose weight. according to the metabolic research, your body''s other systems will stop expending as much energy as they typically do to compensate for the calories burned during exercise. so at the end of the day, you didn''t actually burn any extra calories. but what exercise DOES do, according to the findings, is regulate appetite. that''s huge in and of itself, and a reason to keep moving every day. all the other benefits of exercise are worth moving as well, which the author briefly discusses. in my particular niche, i teach women strength-training using barbells, bodyweight and kettlebells. i also teach them to prioritize protein, which the author confirms is satiating and will discourage overeating. So, to lose weight, calorie restriction is the holy grail, but adding daily walks and eliminating processed foods (which are designed to be overeaten) will go a long way toward making your goal a reality. bonus—this book laid out all the reasons that cardio for weight loss is pointless. i found it incredibly validating.
16 people found this helpful
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Julia
1.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
"Overweight: You''re Stuck With It, But You Should Exercise For Other Health Benefits."
Reviewed in the United States on May 21, 2021
A long read to basically inform you that you can''t lose weight through exercise and that the body will do everything it can to not lose weight if you try calorie restriction. Not only that, if you do somehow manage to lose weight, you are doomed to gain it all back and then... See more
A long read to basically inform you that you can''t lose weight through exercise and that the body will do everything it can to not lose weight if you try calorie restriction. Not only that, if you do somehow manage to lose weight, you are doomed to gain it all back and then some. The cover states: "Burn: New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and Stay Healthy," the book does not deliver on that promise. Never once does the author tell you how to lose weight. Ultimately the message is very depressing for those who do want to lose weight. The title should read: "Overweight: You''re Stuck With It, But You Should Exercise For Other Health Benefits."
22 people found this helpful
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Tom
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
A Must Read for the Topic Human Nutrition
Reviewed in the United States on March 10, 2021
This is no review, just a brief note about my reaction to reading the book. I have a high interest in the evolutionary changes and adaptions our species experiences through time. I''ve had much admiration for Daniel Lieberman''s work on the topic. Dr. Pontzer''s book, Burn, I... See more
This is no review, just a brief note about my reaction to reading the book. I have a high interest in the evolutionary changes and adaptions our species experiences through time. I''ve had much admiration for Daniel Lieberman''s work on the topic. Dr. Pontzer''s book, Burn, I would highly recommend for anyone interested in human nutrition and the differences modern civilizations has caused in the way we process energy needs. I would think this book should be required reading in medical schools. The writing style is interesting and an easy, pleasure to read.
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Pedro H. de Barros
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Conteúdo de alto nível!
Reviewed in Brazil on September 22, 2021
O livro do Professor Herman Pontzer mudou o meu pensamento a respeito do nosso metabolismo. Pelo menos para mim, ter acesso à informação que há um limite para o nosso gasto energético diário e que a atividade não aumenta esse gasto foi esclarecedor. Ademais, ainda que a...See more
O livro do Professor Herman Pontzer mudou o meu pensamento a respeito do nosso metabolismo. Pelo menos para mim, ter acesso à informação que há um limite para o nosso gasto energético diário e que a atividade não aumenta esse gasto foi esclarecedor. Ademais, ainda que a atividade física não contribua diretamente para a redução de peso, a explicação do Professor Pontzer a respeito de como ela reduz os processo inflamatórios no corpo foi fantástica. É um daqueles livros que tendem a mudar nossa percepação a respeito da realidade.
O livro do Professor Herman Pontzer mudou o meu pensamento a respeito do nosso metabolismo. Pelo menos para mim, ter acesso à informação que há um limite para o nosso gasto energético diário e que a atividade não aumenta esse gasto foi esclarecedor. Ademais, ainda que a atividade física não contribua diretamente para a redução de peso, a explicação do Professor Pontzer a respeito de como ela reduz os processo inflamatórios no corpo foi fantástica. É um daqueles livros que tendem a mudar nossa percepação a respeito da realidade.
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Consumate Consumer
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Eye-opening research
Reviewed in Canada on July 30, 2021
Completely changes any ideas about weight-loss.
Completely changes any ideas about weight-loss.
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Danielle McPherson
1.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Returned
Reviewed in Mexico on September 6, 2021
Returned
Returned
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Rinnie
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Great book
Reviewed in Canada on March 16, 2021
Already recommended it to the kids The book explains clearly where our civilization is falling short and where we should be heading
Already recommended it to the kids
The book explains clearly where our civilization is falling short and where we should be heading
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Amazon Customer
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Must read for all of HuMaN KiNd
Reviewed in Canada on May 6, 2021
Makes you look at food in a totally different way
Makes you look at food in a totally different way
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Description

Product Description

One of the foremost researchers in human metabolism reveals surprising new science behind food and exercise.

We burn 2,000 calories a day. And if we exercise and cut carbs, we''ll lose more weight. Right? Wrong. In this paradigm-shifting book, Herman Pontzer reveals for the first time how human metabolism really works so that we can finally manage our weight and improve our health.

Pontzer''s groundbreaking studies with hunter-gatherer tribes show how exercise doesn''t increase our metabolism. Instead, we burn calories within a very narrow range: nearly 3,000 calories per day, no matter our activity level. This was a brilliant evolutionary strategy to survive in times of famine. Now it seems to doom us to obesity. The good news is we can lose weight, but we need to cut calories. Refuting such weight-loss hype as paleo, keto, anti-gluten, anti-grain, and even vegan, Pontzer discusses how all diets succeed or fail: For shedding pounds, a calorie is a calorie.

At the same time, we must exercise to keep our body systems and signals functioning optimally, even if it won''t make us thinner. Hunter-gatherers like the Hadza move about five hours a day and remain remarkably healthy into old age. But elite athletes can push the body too far, burning calories faster than their bodies can take them in. It may be that the most spectacular athletic feats are the result not just of great training, but of an astonishingly efficient digestive system.

Revealing, irreverent, and always entertaining, Pontzer has written a book that will change how you eat, move, and live.

Review

"A wide-ranging romp through evolutionary biology, physiology, and anthropology,  Burn will make you question what you think you know about metabolism and your waistline."
–Stephan Guyenet, PhD,  author of The Hungry Brain

"Burn
is science writing at its best: big ideas, wild and often hilarious stories from the field, and deft explanations. The result will reshape what you thought you knew about how our metabolisms work."
—Alex Hutchinson, New York Times bestselling author of Endure

"Herman Pontzer is one of the most gifted science writers of our time."
–Kelly McGonigal, PhD, author of The Joy of Movement

"Herman Pontzer’s Burn is a fun, fast-paced, eye-opening, and innovative book that will revolutionize how you think about the energy that fuels your body and everything you do. Please read Burn if you are interested in diet, exercise and what makes us human. It’s also enormously entertaining."  
–Daniel E. Lieberman, author of Exercised and The Story of the Human Body

"An absorbing, instructive lesson for anyone concerned about their health."
Kirkus starred review

About the Author

Herman Pontzer is an Associate Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology at Duke University and Associate Research Professor of Global Health at the Duke Global Health Institute. He is an internationally recognized researcher in human energetics and evolution. Over two decades of research in the field and laboratory, Dr. Pontzer has conducted pathbreaking studies across a range of settings, including fieldwork with Hadza hunter-gatherers in northern Tanzania, fieldwork on chimpanzee ecology in the rainforests of Uganda, and metabolic measurements of great apes in zoos and sanctuaries around the globe. Dr. Pontzer''s work has been covered in The New York Times, BBC, PBS, Washington Post, The Atlantic, NPR, Scientific American, and others.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

Chapter 1
The Invisible Hand

The lions woke me up around two in the morning. The sound wasn''t loud so much as big-like the moaning hydraulics of a garbage truck interrupted by the coughs and grunts of an idling Harley-Davidson. My first hazy, sleepy reaction was a kind of grateful joy. Ah, the sounds of wild Africa! I stared up through the gossamer mesh roof of my tent at the stars overhead, felt the night breeze pushing through the dry grass and thorny acacia trees and up against the tent''s thin nylon walls, carrying the lions'' chorus. I felt fortunate to be there, camped in my little tent in the middle of the vast East African savanna, a place so remote and untrammeled that there were lions just a few hundred yards off. How lucky was I?

Then a pang of adrenaline and fear. This wasn''t a zoo or some tourist safari. Those lions weren''t pretty pictures in a National Geographic magazine or a PBS nature show. This was real life. A gang of heavily muscled 300-pound feline killing machines was a short stroll away, and they sounded . . . anxious. Maybe even . . . hungry? Of course they could smell me. After days of camping I could smell myself. What was my plan when they came for my soft American carcass, the warm triple crme brie of human flesh? I wondered how close they''d get before I heard them in the tall grass, or if the end would come unannounced, an explosion of claws and hot angry teeth crashing through walls of the tent.

I kept thinking it through, trying to be rational. Judging by where the sound was coming from, the lions would have to walk past Dave''s and Brian''s tents first. I was Door Number 3 in this particular game of chance. That meant 1 in 3 odds of being eaten by lions tonight, or, if one was a glass-two-thirds-full kind of person, a 67 percent chance of not being eaten. That was a comforting thought. Plus we were with the Hadza, on the outskirts of their camp, and nobody messes with the Hadza. Sure, hyenas and leopards would occasionally slink past their grass huts at night looking for scraps or unattended babies, but the lions seemed to keep their distance.

The fear began to dissipate. Drowsiness seeped back in. I''d probably be fine. Besides, if one had to be eaten by lions, it seemed preferable to be asleep at the time, at least until the last possible moment. I fluffed up the pile of dirty clothes I was using for a pillow, adjusted my sleeping pad, and went back to sleep.

It was my first summer working with the Hadza, a generous, resourceful, and badass people who live in small camps scattered about the rugged, semiarid savanna around Lake Eyasi in northern Tanzania. Anthropologists and human biologists like me like to work with the Hadza because of how they make their living. The Hadza are hunter-gatherers: they have no agriculture, no domesticated animals, no machines or guns or electricity. Each day they wrest their food from the wild landscape around them, using nothing but their own hard work and guile. Women gather berries or dig wild tubers from the rocky soil with stout pointed sticks, often with a child on their back in a sling. Men hunt zebra, giraffe, antelope, and other animals, with powerful bows and arrows they fashion themselves from branches and sinew, or chop open trees with small axes to extract wild honey from beehives built in the hollows of limbs and trunks. Kids run and play around the grass huts of camp or head out in groups to get firewood and water. Elders either head out foraging with the other adults (they are remarkably spry even into their seventies) or stay back at camp to keep an eye on things.

This way of life was the norm worldwide for over two million years, from the evolutionary dawn of our genus, Homo, through the invention of farming just twelve thousand years ago. As farming spread and brought towns, urbanization, and eventually industrialization in its wake, most cultures traded in their bows and digging sticks for crops and brick houses. Some, like the Hadza, held on proudly to their traditions even as the world around them changed and began to encroach. Today, these few populations are the last living windows into humanity''s shared hunter-gatherer past.

Along with my good friends and fellow researchers Dave Raichlen and Brian Wood and our research assistant Fides, I was in Hadzaland (as we casually refer to their homeland) in northern Tanzania to learn how the Hadza lifestyle is reflected in their metabolism-the way their bodies burn energy. It''s a simple but incredibly important question. Everything our bodies do-growing, moving, healing, reproducing-requires energy, and so understanding how our energy is spent is the first, foundational step in understanding how our bodies work. We wanted to know how the human body functions in a hunting and gathering society like the Hadza, where people were still an integral part of a functioning ecosystem, with a lifestyle still similar in important ways to that of our deep past. No one had ever measured daily energy expenditure, the total number of calories burned per day, in a hunter-gatherer population. We were eager to be the first.

In the modernized world, far removed from the daily work of acquiring our food with our bare hands, we pay little attention to energy expenditure. If we think about it at all, we think of the latest diet, our workout plan, whether we''ve earned that donut we crave. Calories are a hobby, a nugget of data on our smartwatches. The Hadza know better. They understand intuitively that food and the energy it holds are the fundamental stuff of life. Each day they confront an ancient and unforgiving arithmetic: acquire more energy than you burn or go hungry.

We woke up with the sun still orange and weak on the eastern horizon, the colors of the trees and grass washed out in the diluted morning light. Brian started a cooking fire in our small, Hadza-style three-stone hearth and set a pot of water on to boil. Dave and I milled around bleary-eyed, needing caffeine. Soon enough we were all drinking hot mugs of Africafe instant coffee and spooning up plastic bowlfuls of instant oatmeal and jelly. We discussed research plans for the day. We had all heard the lions during the night and joked nervously about how close they sounded.

Then, sauntering through the tall dry grass, came four Hadza men. They weren''t coming from camp, but from the opposite direction, from the bush. They were each carrying large, misshapen loads over their shoulders, and it took me a moment to recognize what it was: legs, haunches, and other blood-matted parts of a big, freshly killed antelope. The men knew we liked to keep track of the foods they brought back to camp, and they wanted to give us a chance to record this kill before splitting it up among the families in camp.

Brian snaps to it, clears off the weigh scale, and locates the Foraging Returns notebook, striking up a conversation in Swahili, our common language with the Hadza.
"Thanks for bringing these by," says Brian, "but where the hell did you get a huge antelope at six in the morning?"
"It''s a kudu," say the Hadza guys, grinning, "and we took it."
"Took it?" asks Brian.
"You guys heard the lions last night, right?" say the Hadza guys. "Well, we figured they were up to something, so we went and checked it out. Turns out they had just killed this kudu . . . so we took it."

And that was it. Another day in Hadzaland-a banner day in fact, starting off with the rare prize of big game in all of its fatty and proteinaceous glory. In camp later that morning, gnawing on roasted strips of kudu, hearing the story of how Dad and his buddies chased off a pride of hungry lions in the dark to bring home food, the Hadza kids would understand an important and timeless lesson. Energy is everything, and it''s worth risking everything to get it.

Even if you have to steal breakfast from the lions'' jaws.


A Small Matter of Life and Death

Energy is the currency of life; without it, you''re dead. Your body is made up of roughly 37 trillion cells, each humming along like microscopic factories, every second of every day. Together, they burn enough energy every twenty-four hours to bring eight gallons (about thirty liters) of ice water to a raging boil. Our cells outshine the stars: each ounce of living human tissue burns ten thousand times more energy each day than an ounce of the Sun. A small portion of this activity is under our conscious control-namely the muscle activity we use to move. Some of it we''re dimly aware of, like our heartbeat and breathing. But most of this teeming activity goes on completely beneath the surface, in a vast and unseen ocean of cellular processes that keep us alive. We notice only when things go wrong, which, increasingly, they do. Obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and nearly all of the other diseases that plague us in the modernized world are, at their core, rooted in the ways our bodies take in and expend energy.

And yet, despite its importance for life and health, metabolism (the way our bodies burn energy) is badly and almost universally misunderstood. How much energy does an average adult burn each day? Every nutrition label in the supermarket will tell you that the standard American diet is 2,000 calories a day-and every label is wrong. Nine-year-olds burn 2,000 calories; for adults, it''s closer to 3,000, depending on how much you weigh and how much fat you carry (and for the record, the correct term when we''re talking about our daily energy needs is kilocalories, not calories). How many miles do you have to run to burn the energy stored in a single donut? At least three, but again, it depends on how much you weigh. For that matter, where does the fat go when we "burn it off" with exercise? Think it turns into heat? sweat? muscle? Wrong, wrong, wrong. You breathe most of it out as carbon dioxide, and turn a small fraction of it into water (but not necessarily sweat). If you didn''t know that already, you''re in good company; most doctors don''t, either.

No doubt much of our ignorance on the subject of energetics stems from gaps in our education system and the Teflon-like quality with which the human brain repels unused details. When three out of four Americans can''t name the three branches of U.S. federal government-an important bit of information drilled into us annually over twelve years of schooling-there may be little hope of people recalling the finer points of the Krebs cycle from high school biology. But our poor understanding is aided and abetted by a host of charlatans and Internet hucksters promoting wrongheaded ideas, usually for personal gain. With a reliably uninformed audience eager to stay healthy, you can sell almost anything no matter how preposterous. Boost your metabolism! they promise. Burn fat with these simple tricks! Avoid these foods to stay thin! scream the glossy magazines, usually without a shred of real evidence or scientific backing.

But the bigger, structural reason energetics is misunderstood is that we have gotten the science of energy expenditure fundamentally wrong. Since the beginning of modern metabolic research around the turn of the twentieth century, we''ve been taught to think of our bodies as simple engines: we take in "fuel" in the form of food, and burn it off by revving our engine with exercise. Any extra unburned fuel builds up as fat. People who run their engines hotter, burning more fuel each day, are less likely to get fat from accumulating unburnt fuel. If you''ve already accumulated some unwanted fat, just exercise more to burn it off.

It''s an appealing and simple model, a sort of armchair engineer''s view of metabolism. And it gets a couple things right: our bodies need food for fuel, and unburned fuel gets stored as fat. But it gets the rest badly wrong. Our bodies don''t work like simple fuel-burning machines because they aren''t products of engineering, they''re products of evolution.

As science is only beginning to fully appreciate, five hundred million years of evolution have made our metabolic engines incredibly dynamic and adaptable. Our bodies have gotten very crafty, able to respond to changes in exercise and diet in ways that make evolutionary sense even if they frustrate our attempts to stay trim and healthy. Consequently, more exercise doesn''t necessarily mean more energy burned per day, and burning more energy doesn''t protect against getting fat. And yet public health strategies stubbornly cling to the simplistic armchair engineer''s view of metabolism, hurting efforts to combat obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and the other diseases that are most likely to kill us. Without a better understanding of how our bodies burn energy, we grow understandably frustrated when we see our weight-loss plans failing, the bathroom scale refusing to budge despite our earnest efforts at the gym, the latest overhyped metabolic magic letting us down.

This book explores the new, emerging science of human metabolism. As a human biologist interested in our species'' evolutionary past as well as our prospects for the future, I''ve been working on the front lines of metabolic research in humans and other primates for over a decade. Exciting and surprising revelations over the past few years are changing the way we understand the links between energy expenditure, exercise, diet, and disease. In the following pages, we''ll examine these new discoveries and their implications for living long and healthy lives.

Much of this new science has come from work with the Hadza and populations like them: small-scale nonindustrial societies still integrated into their local ecology. These cultures have a lot to teach us in the developed world, but it''s not the caricatured version of hunter-gatherer life popularized in much of today''s Paleo movement. Here, too, my colleagues and I have learned a great deal in the past few years about how diet and daily physical activity keep these populations free of the "diseases of civilization" that bedevil us in modernized, urbanized, industrialized countries. We will visit these groups to see what daily life (and field research) is like in these communities, and what lessons we can bring home. We''ll also travel to zoos, rain forests, and archaeological excavations around the world to see how studies of living apes and fossil humans are contributing to our understanding of metabolic health.

But first, we need to get a sense of the immense reach and scale of metabolism in our lives. To truly appreciate the importance of energy expenditure, we have to look beyond the quotidian concerns of health and disease. Like the Earth''s tectonic plates, metabolism is the unseen foundation underlying everything, slowly shifting and shaping our lives. The familiar geography of human existence, from our first nine months in the womb to the eighty or so years we might have on this planet, is formed by the metabolic engines burning away inside us. Our big, clever brains and chubby babies are built and powered by metabolic machinery far different from that of our ape kin. As we''ve come to understand only recently, our evolved metabolism made us the bizarre and wonderful species we are today.

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Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

Burn: online New Research Blows the Lid Off How We Really Burn Calories, Lose Weight, and high quality Stay Healthy outlet sale

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